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Selection of rootstock

Apple rootstocks are divided into dwarf (P22, P59), dwarf (M9, P60, B396), semi-dwarf (M26, P14), medium (MM106, B118) and tall (Antonovka seedlings). Virtually any variety can be grafted on any rootstock. It should be noted that the rootstock alone cannot determine the height of the tree; this is greatly influenced by pruning, care and the characteristics of the variety. Apple trees on dwarf and semi-low rootstocks begin to harvest earlier, with better illumination of the wreath, resulting in better quality fruits and easier picking. However, there are also disadvantages - the root system of such apple trees is quite weak and close to the surface, so good agricultural techniques are necessary: ​​fertilization, watering, weed control, support to prevent the apple tree from turning. On medium-grown and tall rootstocks, apple trees do not have these disadvantages, but their fruiting begins 1-2 years later, they grow stronger and take up more space in the garden. Therefore, apple trees on dwarf and dwarf rootstocks would only be recommended by gardeners who will have the time and knowledge to properly care for them, as only then will all the advantages of such rootstocks be realized. The same can be said for other fruit trees and their lower rootstocks. For pears - Plain quince, for plums - Vangelheim Hungarian, for fertilizers-PHL, Colt, Gisela 5 and so on.

Site selection, soil

The place for the garden should not be in some kind of pit or in the valley. Most suitable - slight elevation protected from the north winds. Peaches, fertilizers, many plums and pears should be warmer. The soil may be varied, but preferably sandy, light or medium. The soil should not be waterlogged, especially this is not good for stone fruits and dwarf rootstocks. Soil acidity is also important - especially bad acidic soil influences the growth of cherries and fertilizers, while other fruit trees should have a pH of 5-6. Lime, chalk, dolomite, ash reduce acidity and sulfur, peat, sawdust increase acidity. When preparing the soil for planting, weeds should be removed and thinned up to 30-40 cm. depth. There is absolutely no need to prepare pits for planting half a year or before. If the soil is not fertile, you can prepare the mix by adding good ground, compost, well-rotted manure. Under no circumstances should you apply dry manure or mineral fertilizers - you will burn the roots.

Planting

The garden can be planted both in autumn and spring. When planted in autumn, the trees grow better, and the vegetation begins earlier in the spring. In the autumn planting should be avoided only frost-sensitive varieties. When planted in spring, the fruit trees should be watered extensively. Annuals and biennials are planted. It is necessary to pay attention not only to the crown so that it is intact and well developed, but also that the roots are well developed and not dried. Transport only by placing the roots in a sealed bag; if not planting immediately, prune the roots. There is no need to admire and buy very large seedlings - the bigger the tree, the harder it will grow. The planting pit must be wide enough to allow the roots of the plant to spread freely. The depth of adjustment is also important. Apple trees and pears are planted at the same depth as the nursery, and it is important that the grafting site remains above the ground, and that the cherries and plums can be deeper. Meanwhile, the grafting of fruit trees with vegetative rootstocks should be 8-10 cm, above the ground. The following planting distances are recommended:

- cherry-3.5-4 m. between rows and 2-2.5m. row between trees;
- apple trees, pears, plums, fertilizers, peaches and apricots on the seedling-5-6 m. between rows and 3-4 m. in a queue;
- apple trees on dwarfs, pears, plums and fertilizers on dwarf rootstock - 4-5 m. between rows and 2.5-3 m. in the queue.

It should be borne in mind that in fertile soil the trees grow stronger, and if you prune intensively you can plant more densely.
When planning a garden, it is necessary to consider whether the variety is self-pollinating or cross-pollinating, as the non-pollinating variety will be poorly or not at all suitable. Many varieties of apple, pear, fertilizer, apricot are cross-pollinated and need other whistles for pollination. It is important to choose varieties that bloom at the same time, then they will pollinate well. Cherries and plums come in a variety of varieties: self-pollinated cherry varieties include Žagarvyshns, Vytėnai star, Nord star; self-pollinating plums - Victoria, Stenley, Edinburgh. As a rule, self-pollinated varieties are good pollinators. Most varieties of peach, gooseberry, red currant are self-pollinating.

Post-planting care

Early spring bleaching of young fruit trunks and skeletal branches is necessary. This is not done in April or May, but in March. Then, at night, there is still frost, but during the day, the sun heats up the bark of the evergreen tree, causing it to fracture and the various crevices to fall through the resulting cracks. Basically, in the first year after planting, the most important thing is that the plant does not lack moisture, so it should be watered. The undergrowth must be clean, free from weeds, as weeds and other herbs compete with the young plant to remove nutrients and moisture. For the first two years, grasses must be mechanically destroyed, followed by herbicides (Raundup, Basta). If the herbicides are applied to thin bark or leaves of a young plant, the latter may disappear. The undergrowth formed after rain or watering should be constantly disrupted, and then the land will not dry up so quickly. If the land is fertile, it may not be possible to fertilize at all in the first year after planting. The first two to three years before the fruit tree begins to harvest, it is full of a handful of ammonium nitrate (about 100 g.), as well as a complex fertilizer. When the harvest begins, the fertilizer rate is increased 2-3 times. Fertilization is done in the spring, as soon as vegetation begins.
Harvesting fruit trees require harvesting measures. This is done by thinning out the nodules. It is important to set the right time here - when the nodules stop naturally crumbling, then you see what remains. Apple trees and pears should be orientated so that the fruit remains every 15-20 cm., Plums - 2-3 times denser. This is not relevant for other stone fruits. You don't really need to avoid thinning out your fears, because you are afraid of losing part of your harvest, because when you grow thin, the total weight of the crop does not change much, but the fruits are much larger and of better quality. In addition, it is important for many other reasons: forfeiture, crushing of fruits, unbroken branches are avoided. It should also be borne in mind that too abundant harvests result in poorer winter preparation and increased vulnerability to frost and disease.

Formation

The formation of fruit trees is not just pruning, although pruning is the most commonly used tool. Many people are simply afraid to cut, in their words, to damage trees. This is a completely wrong position and the pruning of fruit trees is necessary as the shape, height, yield, illumination and quality of the fruit are controlled by pruning. Many books have been written about pruning, but in a nutshell, you need to know some basic rules. Each vegetative tree bud is a potential branch or trunk, so we can form a tree from one bud. The more we prune the tree, the more new offspring it brings. The upright (vertical) shoots only grow upwards, the horizontal shoots form circular buds and are dovetailed. These rules apply to fruit trees of all types and ages. Cherries, apricots and peaches are advised to grow with a wreath close to the natural, i.e. cut them as little as possible and only shorten vigorous shoots to keep the trees at normal height. In order to minimize the growth of new shoots, it is necessary to prune not everywhere, but to shorten the branch or apex to a weakly growing shoots, which will become a new, but not so growing branch or apex. After buying a one-year-old unbranched tree, it is necessary to shorten it at a height of about 1-1.20 m above the stronger bud when vegetation begins. Lower buds up to 60-70 cm tall are peeled off. The remaining 6-7 buds will grow skeletal branches that will become the crown of a future tree. In order to prevent branches from breaking later, they must be grown with the stem at 90 degrees. If you are forming a 1-year-old seedling yourself, you simply close the shoots over a 10-12 cm long shoots and steer the growth of the branch at the right angle. If the branches are already woody, carefully pry them down and tie them in the correct position with the rope. We keep both the clip and the cord for up to 1 month and then remove it. Lately, apple trees and pears, and t.p. and plums and fertilizers are formed in the form of spindles. The spindle is characterized by a single trunk, with the adult branches at right angles to it, and the fact that each branch growing above is weaker and shorter than the lower branch. Within 3-4 years, the skeletal branches are as high as three: 60-70 cm in height, strongest in the middle of the tree, and the weakest in the upper part. Fruit trees on dwarf and dwarf rootstocks require a support to which both the stem and the branches are attached. The seeds are pruned in March, April before the beginning of the vegetation period, and the dry fruit is best in the summer after the harvest. Explanation of figures: Pruning of unbranched tree after planting; Fig.2 Clip fastening; Figure 3 This is what a biennial tree should look like; Figure 4 4-5 year old tree before and after pruning. Figure 5 6-7 year old tree before and after pruning.

Protection against diseases and pests

It's up to everyone to choose whether or not to use chemical plant protection products. We believe that 3-4 sprays for abundant and high quality harvest is less of a bad thing than consuming imported products, which are often sprayed 20-25 times. The following is a possible protection scheme for various fruit trees.
(For product formulations, see package, instructions)
1. SPRAY. Before flowering, buds swell. During this phase, it is important to eradicate winter surviving pests and disease spores.
From Diseases: Copper Preparations (COPPER SULPHATE, BORDER MIXTURE, POLICHOM, POLICARBACIN, CHOMECIN, COPPER OXYCHLORIDE, KUPROZAN, CHAMPION), m.p. EFECTOR (DELAN), CHORUS.

From Pests: FASTAC, ARRIVO, KARATE, SHERPA, DECIS.
If there are significant fluctuations in air temperature during the winter, it is advisable to use measures against bark diseases: FUNDASOL (BENLEIT), TOPSIN M, NECTEC. They can be mixed with prep. from diseases, only by adding both 2/3 of the norm.

2. SPRAY. After flowering, the petals fall.
From diseases and pests-same preparations + apple and pear from diseases SCORE
DITAN, ZATO. For peaches, both Spray I and Spray II must be used with Effect-Frinose (leaves start to wrinkle, and shoots dry). From cherry monilosis ("burns" leaves, blossoms, dry shoots) - used TOPSIN M, FUNDASOL. Plums from the fruit seedling 2-3 weeks. after flowering spray FASTAC. Pests should only be sprayed if you have noticed a lot of them last year. If you notice aphids, use ACTARA, PIRIMOR, AZTEC.

3. SPRAY. As the conception falls. The same preparations as for spray II are used for diseases. From cherry cocomycosis (pink spots on the leaves) very effective TOPAZ, from apple and pear blight-SCORE, CHORUS.

The spray may be repeated for a better appearance of the fruit or for the severe spread of these diseases.
 There are a few basic rules to follow when spraying. Best time to spray is in the evening when it is not very hot. There is no need to spray in the morning while it is still dew, after rain or before rain. Most preparations are effective only at temperatures above +10 degrees Celsius. The same preparation should not be used more than twice a season. Do not spray with insecticides during flowering when bees fly. The last spraying must be carried out at least 20 days before the harvest. Consideration must be given to personal protection: use respirator, goggles, rubber gloves and do not smoke while working.  Purchase preparations only from authorized dealers and in original packaging, require instructions for use and read carefully.

We wish you the best of luck and and we hope you get a generous harvest.